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OPRFHS Library Home Page

Research Guides

The Basics

One Author

  • (Author Surname, date of publication)

  • Example:

    • If the reference is: 

      • Martinez, A. (2018). Ocean acidification and coral bleaching. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 5(2), 35-45. https://doi.org/882qpoasl.jfsd.qiuwoakd

    • Then the in-text is:

      • (Martinez, 2018)

  • Examples in a sentence:

    • 81% of the northern Great Barrier Reef has suffered from choral bleaching (Martinez, 2018).

    • Martinez (2018) stated that...

 

Two Authors

  • (Author surname & Author surname, date of publication)
  • Example:
    • If the reference is:
      • Martinez, A. & Jones, B. (2015). Ocean acidification and coral bleaching. ICES Journal of Marine Science5(2), 35-45. https://doi.org/882qpoasl.jfsd.qiuwoakd
    • Then the in-text is:
      • (Martinez & Jones, 2015)

 

Three or More Authors

  • List only the first author followed by et al.
  • Example: 
    • If the reference is:
      • Harris, D., Smith, P., Martinez, A., & Jones, B. (2017). Ocean acidification and coral bleaching. ICES Journal of Marine Science5(2), 35-45. https://doi.org/882qpoasl.jfsd.qiuwoakd
    • Then the in-text is:
      • (Harris et al., 2017)

 

No Author

  • Use a shortened version of the title in place of the author’s last name.

  • Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks
  • ‚ÄčExample:
    • If the reference is:
      • How to eat a pizza. (2019). New York Times. https://nytimes.com/howtoeatapizza 
    • Then the in-text is:
      • (“How to Eat,” 2019)
      • Note:  The title is in quotes because it is an article title, and article titles are in title case when in the in-text citation.

 

No Date

  • Write n.d. in place of the date.
  • For example: (Harris, n.d.)

 

Government/corporate/organization authors

  • (Name of government agency or organization, year of publication)

  • (United States Department of Agriculture, 2010)

  • Use the acronym for subsequent in-text citations:  (USDA, 2010)

 

Direct Quotes (include the page number if available)

  • (Jones & Smith, 2009, p. 3)

  • According to Jones, & Smith (2009), “...” (p. 3).